Online Learning: An Overview

University of Illinois
2005 – 2012

This eight-week, graduate level course overviews the nature of online learning and teaching.  This course introduces the key elements of an online program through active discussions, collaborative projects, and optional synchronous sessions.  Assignments focus on the analysis and assessment of quality online course design and best practices in teaching online.


Instructional Design for Online Course Development

University of Illinois
2005 – 2012

This eight-week, graduate level course introduces instructional design principles as they relate to online course analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Students are required to apply content through by directly applying the systematic approach of instructional design to their own teaching environment.  The course requires high level participation using discussion forums and project submissions.  Optional synchronous sessions focusing on weekly topics provided using a web conferencing tool.


Issues and Strategies for Faculty Support and Development

University of Illinois
2005 – 2012

This eight-week, graduate-level course addressing various models for faculty training and exploring the literature to see what works with faculty training. It explores methods of faculty training, reasons why faculty embrace technology, instructor competencies, and assessing whether or not training is successful.  The course also spends time looking at support and development models specific to online faculty as well.


Web Design Principles for Online Educators

University of Illinois
2005 – 2012

This eight-week, graduate-level course that overviews the core principals of web design as they relate to the development of online courses and course materials.  The course begins with the process for planning a web site and builds on that information to help students evaluate existing courses and develop their own criteria for what makes a quality course.  Strategies for the creation of accessible materials are also explored.  Requires a high-level of participation using discussion forums and assignment submission. Optional synchronous sessions focusing on weekly topics provided using a web conferencing tool.


Quality Assurance and Accountability in Distance Education

University of Illinois
2005 – 2012

This instructor-led, eight-week, fully-online course examines quality assurance strategies and issues. Students will examine processes, philosophies, and strategies for building appropriate accountability measures into online learning programs. The course accomplishes this by analyzing the standards and process for accrediting online degree programs.


Positive Behavior Planning

Chapman University
1998 to 1999

This course provides instruction in developing Positive Behavioral Intervention Plans based on Functional Assessments. Students will become familiar with California Education Code sections related to behavioral interventions.


Trends & Issues in Instructional Design

University of Wisconsin – Stout
Online Instructional Design Graduate Certificate

Course Description

In-depth comparison of current instructional design theories and models, variables that affect adult learning, techniques for stimulating and sustaining learner motivation, reinforcement of learning, skill transfer, and use of cognitive task analysis to determine instructional content.

Example Course Content

Welcome To Class



Welcome to EDUC765: Trends and Issues in Instructional Design. I’m excited to have you in class, and I look forward learning together over the next eight weeks. Due to the short time we have together, and the amount of content we need to cover, we will be jumping right into it. However, I do want to make sure we also take the time to get to know one another and build community. I have created several opportunities to do this throughout the course. During the first week of the course, we will participate in an ice-breaker activity as well have two opportunities to participate in optional synchronous meetings via Zoom (more details below).

Course Structure

The course is structure consistent and divided into eight content modules/units. Each module is one week and aligns with a step within the instructional design process as outlined by our textbook authors. Our virtual classroom here in Canvas is designed in alignment with this structure. Everything you need to complete each module’s assignments can be found under each module’s respective section on our Home page.

Modules officially begin every Monday. However, for those who wish to get a head start on reading, etc., I will open modules the Friday before. For example, if Module 1 officially opens Monday, August 29, I will open it on Friday, August 26. This way you can have the weekend to get a little bit ahead while keeping us all moving along the course together.

Within each module we will participate in the following learning activities:

  • Read & Research
    This will include reading your textbook, text-based lectures, and researching content-related topics. Some of the content may include listening to audio files and watching videos as ways of learning the material.

  • Knowledge Check
    In each module, you will have a quiz that covers the materials learned through the Read & Research activities. These quizzes are due on Sunday, but once you have met the initial deadline, you can take them as many times as you would like. The latest score obtained is what is entered into the gradebook.

  • Design Document
    This, along with an e-Portfolio, serve as the capstone project for the course. A design document is a blueprint that helps you make decisions around what, when, where, why, and how you will teach a course, concept, and/or training. The project is broken down so that you turn in a section of the project each module/week. This provides me the opportunity to give you continuous feedback. You are encouraged to update your project based on my feedback, which can also lead to updated points/grade.

  • Industry Chat
    During our time together, we’ll have discussions that go beyond the textbook and bring in industry concepts and examples. We’ll accomplish this by conducting research, engaging with guest speakers, and discussing industry trends. A majority of these topics will take two weeks to complete and overlap with multiple modules. 

Student Success

Your success is the most important thing to me as your instructor. To support your success, I have adopted the following strategies in my teaching practice:

  • Accessible Content
    I understand that you can’t be successful if you can’t access the content. All content in the course is chosen carefully and checked for accessibility. The course material inside of Canvas is built inside templates I’ve made based on the the TILT framework so that our content is consistent and accessible. If for any reason you have trouble accessing content or need assistance, please let me know. 

  • Choice
    I understand that we don’t all learn in the same way. This also means we don’t all have the same comfort around how we demonstrate our knowledge as well. Some of us prefer to write while others prefer to give an oral presentation. Therefore, in our class, you have choice in how you engage in our course content and demonstrate your understanding. For example, if you prefer to discuss content rather than take the quiz, you are encouraged to reach out to me and arrange that. If you would prefer to given an oral presentation than write a paper, please reach out. My concern is that you understand the material and I am happy to work with you to do that in a way that best aligns with how you learn.

    Most discussion activities will have a built in choice to either participate via text online or via voice during a synchronous meeting on Thursday nights (7 PM Central Time). I understand that this is a limited choice based on time zones, work/home schedules, bedtime routines, etc. So, if our time doesn’t work for you, let me know. We’ll see what we can do.

  • Focus on Process Not Points
    Success is subjective and can be demonstrated in many different ways, which is why I allow for choice. It’s also why I focus on the process and not points. Assignments in this course do have points assigned to them; however, I have worked hard to be purposeful and intentional about how total points are determined, etc. With that said, you learning the content is much more important to me. So, I commit to giving detailed feedback and provide you the opportunity to update your work as often and as many times as you would like during the course of our class.

  • Student Voice
    You, your voice, and your experiences matter. Therefore, I’ve added several opportunities for you to share with me and each other in alignment to our course content. I look forward to learning from and with you. 

  • Variety
    Throughout the course you will experience a variety of activities and delivery methods. For example, one week you may answer discussion questions about what you learned, while the next week you may be responsible for actually teaching the content. We will also engage in both asynchronous and synchronous opportunities. The synchronous sessions are optional, but provide a different way of learning the content. See the next section on Optional Live Sessions for more details.

  • Availability
    During our time together, I want you to feel you can reach out if needed. I provide my personal cell phone number and make myself available between 9:00 AM and 9:00 PM Pacific Time, seven days a week. You can feel free to call, text, or email me. If I am unavailable, I will work to come up with a time that works for all parties. Texting is a great way to accomplish this, as I can text even when in meetings most of the time. 

    I also make 1:1 appointment slots available for you to meet with me. I add these every weekend for the upcoming week based on my work and home schedule. You can learn how to access these and arrange a 1:1 meeting with me by reading the Canvas Guide or watch the Canvas Tutorial Video.

Optional Live Sessions

During our time together, I will offer optional synchronous sessions via Zoom.  The goal of these sessions is to provide a different modality for learning the content. Everything you need to be successful is in the course and attending these sessions is simply another way to reinforce the content. I also record them for those who might want to watch them at a later time. The structure for these sessions is as follows:

  • Monday 7:00 PM Central Time
    On Mondays, we will recap the previous module, introduce the next topic, and answer any questions you might have.

  • Thursday, September 1, 2022 at 7:00 PM Central Time
    Every module, you will be required to participate in an Industry Chat activity. These activities can be completed asynchronous via our discussion forum inside our virtual classroom. However, you can also choose to attend Thursday nights and participate in the session synchronously. This option will be outlined in each assignment’s description. 

 To access these sessions, click on the Zoom link on our Course Navigation bar and then click Start

Let’s Get Started

Again, I’m excited to have you in the course. You can click the Next button at the bottom of this page to go to the next page. You can also click on the Home link on the Course Navigation bar to the left any time to get back to a list of our modules to navigate to the next document in this module.

About Kevin

Kevin Bowersox-Johnson

Image of Kevin facing camera with arms crossed in front of him.

I’m Kevin and I use he/him/his pronouns (why this is important). In your introductions, please feel free to share your pronouns as well so I and your peers know how to respectfully address you. I also include mine in my signature when posting as a reminder. 

My interest in technology began when I was 14. I detasseled corn for a summer in order to save and buy my first computer: a Commodore 64. I spent hours teaching myself to program, which later lead to a programming position at a University. Anyone remember PLATO terminals? Since, I have developed curriculum and taught in academic and corporate environments. I have also held administrative positions overseeing eLearning, supervising instruction, and developing and supporting faculty. 

You can learn more about me by visiting my UW-STOUT Directory Page or my Online e-Portfolio.

Education Philosophy

Education is a combined process of teaching and learning with an end goal to measurably increase knowledge and improve performance of learners through a systems approach of designing, developing, implementing, updating, and evaluating program and course content based on research, best practices, and universal design where goals and objectives for learning can be determined by either the teacher, the learner, or both.

Contact Information

Email: [email protected]
Cell: +1 (217) 819-0575 

Contact Rules

The phone number provided is my personal cell. Feel free to call or text daily between 9:00 a.m. until 9:00 p.m. Pacific Time (I live in Seattle, WA). If yo text me, please identify yourself when sending messages. Thanks! 

Canvas provides a quick and convenient way for students to send messages to me and each other using the internal email communication tool: Inbox. Please use this tool to communicate with me regarding private matters such as grades. 

Questions that are content-related can benefit all students; therefore, please ask those in the public Q&A forum in the Communication Center module. I will be checking forums daily and receive email notifications when students post. This helps speed up the response process along with the fact that your peers can also help answer your questions.



This eight-week online instructional design course provides an introduction to careers as an instructional designer, learning theory, instructional design models, and the instructional design and development process. You will study variables that affect adult learning, techniques for stimulating and sustaining learner motivation, and how to reinforce learning. Whether you are in health care, education, business, software development or a trainer in any other industry, this online course will help you to analyze, design, and develop instruction.

NOTE: Throughout the instructional design certificate courses you will create portfolio quality products to share during job interviews or use in your current position. For this course, you will create a design document and develop a unit or module of instruction.


I strive for an inclusive learning environment. If you anticipate or experience any barriers related to the format or requirements of this course please contact me directly to discuss ways to ensure full access.

If you determine that additional disability-related accommodations are necessary please contact the Disability Services office for assistance:  715-232-2995.

Course Information

General Information

EDUC 765 – Trends & Issues in Instructional Design
3 Semester Hours of Graduate Credit
Fully Online


Completion of an undergraduate degree.


Kevin Bowersox-Johnson
[email protected]
217-819-0575 (cell)

Make an appointment with me by email or text message for a conference call or virtual meeting. I’m in Pacific Standard Time.

Course Materials

Physical Textbook

Mager, R. F. (1997).  Preparing instructional objectives: A critical tool in the development of effective instruction (3rd ed.). Center for Effective Performance.


Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. J., Morrison, J.R., & Kalman, H. K. (2019). Designing effective instruction (8th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Access this by clicking the RedShelf link in the Course Navigation bar to the left. The e-textbook is included as part of your tuition. Your e-textbook will be accessible for six months after the end of the class. 

You can highlight text and organize information in the e-book (e.g., adding a note stating something like “reference in my discussion posting”) and print only what you want for use as a study guide. You may share notes and highlighting with peers in the class. Personal printing of the textbook for your personal professional use is limited to 20%. If you prefer to read a print copy, instead of an e-textbook, you may purchase the paperbacks directly from the publisher.

Additional Readings

In addition to the textbooks, participants will be asked to read professional articles found on the web and EBSCO (available through the Stout library).

Dick, W & Carey, L. (1997).  The systematic design of instruction (8th ed.).  Pearson .

Williams, R. (2015).  The non-designers design book (4th ed.). Peachpit Press  

Mager, R. F. (1997).  Measuring instructional objectives (3rd ed.).    Center for Effective Performance.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course, you will…

  1. Define instructional design.

  2. Describe and delineate between different instructional design models.

  3. Apply the stages of an instructional design model to solve an instructional problem.

  4. Research instructional designer competencies and create a plan to identify and address competency gaps.  

  5. Compare learning theories and apply them to the instructional design process.

  6. Apply motivation theory to the instructional design process.

  7. Reflect on and apply strategies for addressing equity, diversity, inclusion, and accessibility to the instructional design process.

  8. Develop an e-Portfolio highlighting knowledge, skills, and abilities within the field of Instructional design.

Course Outline

Module 1: What is Instructional Design & Identifying an Instructional Problem

You will share your experiences with poor instruction and reflect on what design components of the training or course could have bettered your learning experience.

You will be able to define Instructional Design and differentiate it between other field terminology. (1)

After reading and researching, you will be able to list, in the correct order, the stages and components of a given Instructional Design Model. (2)

Based on strategies within a given Instructional Design Model, you will identify an instructional problem to address throughout our course using the remaining steps within the same ID model. (3)

Module 2: Instructional Design Models & Needs Assessment

Upon conducting independent research, you will be able to describe and compare the benefits and challenges between different instructional design models. (2)

Based on strategies within a given Instructional Design Model, you will conduct a Needs Assessment in alignment to your previously identified instructional problem. (3)

Module 3: Learner Characteristics

Upon conducting independent research, you will be able to describe and compare the benefits and challenges between different instructional design models. (2)

Based on strategies within a given Instructional Design Model, you will conduct a Learner and Contextual Analysis in alignment to your previously identified instructional problem. (3)

Upon conducting a Learner and Contextual Analysis, you will reflect on instructional considerations you might make around equity, diversity, inclusion, and accessibility to support learning success. (7)

Module 4: Learning Theories & Instructional Designer Competencies

Upon researching a variety of learning theories, you will reflect on how learning theories can be applied within your instructional design process to help solve your previously identified instructional problem. (5)

Upon researching a Motivational Learning theory, you will reflect on how they can be applied within your instructional design process to help solve your previously identified instructional problem. (6)

Upon researching roles and responsibilities held by instructional designers, you will identify common competencies necessary to be an instructional designer and develop a plan to address competency gaps. (4)

Module 5: Goals & Task Analysis

Based on strategies within a given Instructional Design Model, you will conduct a Goal and Task Analysis in alignment to your previously identified instructional problem. (3)

After researching options for developing an e-Portfolio, you will be able to choose a tool and begin developing a simple and logical navigation structure within that tool. (8)

Module 6: Learning Objectives & Preparing for a Job Interview

Based on strategies within a given Instructional Design Model, you will create instructional objectives in alignment to your previously identified instructional problem. (3)

After researching options for developing an e-Portfolio, you will be able to choose a tool and begin developing a simple and logical navigation structure within that tool. (8)

Module 7: Planning Your Instruction

Based on your determined instructional objectives, you will complete an instructional objectives matrix to determine preinstructional strategies, generative activities, and assessments that align to your objectives. (3)

Given a set of example instructional designer job interview questions, you will practice answering the questions using vocabulary and concepts learned within the course. (4)

Module 8: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Your Design & Instruction

Based on strategies within a given Instructional Design Model, you will create a Formative and Summative Evaluation Plan in alignment to your previously identified instructional problem. (3)

To support your instructional design profile, you will add pages and artifacts to your e-Portfolio, including an About Me page, Course Information Page, and your Design Document as evidence of your experience in the course. (8)

Upon completing the steps of a formal instructional design model, you will reflect on how benefits, challenges, and shortcuts you take based on the realistic restrictions often faced around time and other resources. (4)

Grading & Assessment


Your grade will be based on:

Knowledge Checks = 105 Points (27%)

Design Document  = 200 Points (50%)

e-Portfolio  = 20 Points (5%)

Industry Chats  = 70 Points (18%)

Grading Scale

A = 94-100 %
A- = 91-93
B+ = 88-90
B = 84-87
B- = 81-83
C+ = 78-80
C = 74-77

Work below 74% is unacceptable at the graduate-level and will result in a grade of F.

Each course is the prerequisite for the next course. Successful completion with a GPA of 3.0 or higher in each course within the certificate sequence is required for registration in the next class.

Course Policies & Expectations

Student Expectations

The following activities and requirements apply to this course:

  • Log into the course a minimum of three to five times a week to stay active and involved.

  • Put in the time and effort. Based on the number credits you earn from this course, you are expected to dedicate approximately 8-10 hours a week to this course. The time commitment will vary depending your input, needs, and personal study habits.

  • Read lesson introductions, text, and assigned articles from the Web.

  • Engage in positive and meaningful dialogue with classmates concerning the course subject matter.

  • Complete weekly quizzes and assignments.

  • Ask for help when needed.

Instructor Expectations

As your instructor, I am committed to providing a quality learning experience through thoughtful planning, implementation, and assessment of course activities. I am also committed to being readily available to students throughout the semester by returning emails and phone calls within 24 to 48 hours and to returning graded course work with feedback within 72 hours of each assignment’s due date.

Within our Discussion Board, it is my job to initiate thoughtful, on-topic discussions, encourage student-to-student communication, and mediate when necessary. However, I will not respond to every post, but encourage students to take ownership of the learning process by responding to each other. I find that when I respond to every post, my “presence” discourages or shuts down peer-to-peer interactions – the exact opposite of what I am hoping to accomplish.


The primay methods for communicating with me and each other in this class will be via the following communication channels…

Course Announcements

Updates, instructions, advice, and tips will be posted in each module’s Question and Answer discussion page. Remember to check it each time you log in to your course. Please log in at least four times a week. Be sure to check the To Do list as well. 

Discussion Board

 Check the Discussion Board posts and responses regularly and remember that your level of Discussion Board participation and your discussion summary will be factored into your grade.

Your UW-Stout Email Account

Check the university email at least every other day. Daily is better. No course communication will be sent to your home/work personal email accounts.Students can also use email to communicate with me regarding private matters such as grades. However, questions that are content-related can benefit all students; therefore, please ask those in our virtual course Q&A Discussion Forum so that everyone benefits from the answer. I will be checking forums daily and receive email notifications when students post. This helps speed up the response process along with the fact that your peers can also help answer your questions.


The telephone is still sometimes the most effective mode for troubleshooting problems related to the course. My phone number and other contact information can be found above and in the About Your Instructor sectio of our course.

Water Cooler

We will use the Water Cooler forum for off-topic discussions. You can post whatever you would like in here – an interesting article you read online, an opinion about something happening in the world, news about something great that happened in your life. In this forum, pretty much anything goes. I hope that this can be another way that we get to know a little about each other besides the orientation activities. I think of this forum being like the few minutes I spend in the classroom before my face-to-face classes begin when we end up talking about anything and everything. This is not a course requirement, and points are not awarded for posting messages in this area. Please, also note, that any off-topic conversations occurring inside a content specific forum will be asked to move to this forum.  

Late Policy

This is a graduate-level class, and it is expected that you will submit work on time. Prompt submission of assignments for assessment allows me to provide guidance and timely feedback. Due dates for each module are published on the course calendar at the start of the class. Work turned in by midnight on the due date will be considered on time and will receive full credit.

Any work submitted after the due date will lose one level on the rubric. In other words, work that would have been Proficient will be graded as Basic. Work more than seven days late will not be accepted.

However, it is understood that emergencies do arise and the late policy can be waived at my discretion in cases of an emergency. Emergencies are defined as anything which is serious and unexpected. Emergencies cannot be written on the calendar in advance. Examples of emergencies are heart attacks, car accidents, and serious health crises of you or in your immediate family. Examples of non-emergencies are family weddings, vacations, or any other event which can be planned around.

Excused Makeup Work – If a late submission has been requested and approved in advance of the due date, there will be no deduction of points from the assignment grade. Send me a private email requesting an extension and discuss an alternate due date if needed.

Incomplete Policy

Assignment of an Incomplete “I” grade requires a written agreement between me (the instructor) and you (the student) specifying the time and manner in which the student will complete the course requirement.

Incomplete grades should be requested or granted for extenuating circumstances that are:

  • Beyond your control; and/or 
  • Could not have been anticipated early enough in the semester to warrant a withdrawal.

Incomplete grades will not be granted for:

  • Personal convenience;
  • Attending only a few or no class sessions;
  • Being busy with requirements for other courses or work;
  • Wanting to get a better grade with additional time.

For more information, review the University Grading System website and Incomplete Grade Policy.

Academic Honesty & Misconduct

You are responsible for the honest completion and representation of their work, for the appropriate citation of sources, and for respect of others’ academic endeavors. Students who violate these standards must be confronted and must accept the consequences of their actions. The disciplinary procedures can be found on the Academic Misconduct website.

Technical Requirements

This is a web-based distance education course and all of the content, activities, and interactions will take place through the learning management software.

It is important to be able to access and use this system in order to be successful in the course. Check your computer settings to make sure the technology works for you.

Resources and Technical Support

  • Specifications recommended for students using personal laptops for online coursework

  • If you are using your work computer and cannot log in to the course due to technical issues, please check with your employer’s tech support person.

  • For any problems with a username or password, logging in to Access Stout to view the course content, email, or viewing final grades you may contact the UW-Stout Help Desk:

  • Call +1 (715) 232-5000

  • Email [email protected]

  • Hours for the Help Desk.

Backup Plans & Working Offline

If for any reason, you are unable to access Canvas, you are expected to complete and submit assignments. Here are a few scenarios to be prepared for and suggestions for doing so:

Loss of Internet Service

  • If your home Internet service goes down, consider accessing the Internet from the school’s library, the public library, a friend’s house, or a nearby cyber café. Of course, a laptop with wireless Internet connection capabilities is required if connecting from the nearby coffeehouse unless they also provide the computer.

Canvas or Other Applications Go Down

  • If Canvas, or other required applications, go down system wide, expect to hear from me via your email address. I maintain an email distribution list of all my sections for this reason.

  • My messages will provide information I know about the outage and academic expectations. For example, you may be asked to complete and submit existing work via email rather than Canvas. I may also decide to conduct a content-focused synchronous session for you to attend.

  • Again, lack of access does not automatically erase my expectations for completing and submitting assignments.

University Policies

Sexual Misconduct and Title IX

Title IX prohibits sex discrimination that includes sexual misconduct: harassment, domestic and dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. If you or someone you know has been sexually harassed or assaulted, you can report the behavior online or to the Title IX Coordinator in the Dean of Students Office. As “Responsible Employees” faculty members are required to report sexual misconduct to the Title IX Coordinator.


The University of Wisconsin-Stout is committed to maintaining a learning and working environment that is free of bias, prejudice, and harassment-an environment that supports, nurtures, and rewards career and educational advancement based on ability and performance. See the Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation Policy for more information.

Veteran and Active Military Members

Veterans and active duty military personnel with special circumstances (e.g., drill requirements) are encouraged to communicate these in advance to their instructors. Students who may need short- or long-term absence for military active duty should consult the Student Military Leave Policy/or more information. Veterans and active duty military personnel who have a documented disability and may qualify for academic accommodations should contact the Disability Services, located in the library.

Credit Hour (From FASLAH)

UW-Stout defines a “semester credit hour” as an amount of work represented in intended learning outcomes and verified by evidence of student achievement that reasonably approximates:

  • At least 750 minutes of classroom or direct faculty instruction and a minimum of 1500 minutes of out-of-class student work for one semester credit hour, or the equivalent amount of work over a different amount of time (e.g., compressed courses); or

  • At least an equivalent amount of work as required in paragraph (i) of this definition for other academic activities as established by UW-Stout, including distance education, online, hybrid, or other indirect faculty instruction, laboratory work, internships, co-op experiences, studio work, and other academic work leading to the award of credit hours. UW-Stout’s definition of the semester credit hour applies to all academic credit bearing activities at all levels (graduate and undergraduate.)

Any policies not explicitly covered in the syllabus are governed by FASLAH and UW-Stout university policies.

Gold Star Postcard


Gold Star with Smiley Face

Even Adults Like Gold Stars!

I just wanted you to know that I recognize that you have already logged into our virtual classroom. You are definitely on the right track to being successful in this course. Thank You!

Feel free to contact me with any questions or concerns!

Your Instructor,
Kevin  🙂

External Documents

Instructional Design for E-Learning

University of Wisconsin – Stout
2009 – 2012

Learn how to create online courses that work efficiently. By understanding how people learn and how to design the experience conceptually and aesthetically, you can shape an effective and engaging learning experience. The course also addresses hybrid learning environments, synchronous and asynchronous concerns, the use of a variety of media such as video and audio along with accessibility concerns, and effective evaluation of online course design. This course focuses on instructor-led and facilitated methods more than self-paced/ computer-based training.